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Author Topic: DIY 360 wheels - need ideas and parts suggestions  (Read 861 times)

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fgh

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DIY 360 wheels - need ideas and parts suggestions
« on: February 07, 2019, 08:28:04 am »
Hi there.

I'm planning a 3 player 360 degree wheel cabinet for super sprint, super off road, etc.
The easy way would be to get 3 spinners with wheel tops from GGG or ultimarc, and I might end up going that route.

But wheels like these would be much cooler:https://www.ebay.com/itm/Speedway-Motors-Classic-Hotrod-9-3-4-3-Spoke-Black-Steering-Wheel-w-Holes/261871054842
With optical encoders like this: https://www.ebay.co.uk/p/Rotary-Encoder-400p-r-6mm-Incremental-Optical-Shaft-Working-Measurement-C2v5/1387327464

I've read opti-pac can take active high and active low inputs, so most encoders should work, right?

My main problem is mechanical though - how would I connect the wheel to the shaft and the shaft to the encoder so it's properly secured and centered?

I imagine a steering shaft/rod of ~10 cm with a flange bearing (or two, for stability).
But what's a good and affordable way to connect the wheel to the shaft? I've seen simple car steering wheel shafts with 3 bolt holes that might fit, but they were far too long and expensive at around $100.
Found some adapters as well, but it's all for real cars and way more solid (and expensive) than I need.

And then there is the optical encoder. How do I fix it to the steering shaft/rod so it rotates but stays perfectly centered?

Suggestions are welcome!
Thank you!

Best regards,
Frode (Norway)
« Last Edit: February 07, 2019, 08:30:54 am by fgh »

fgh

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Re: DIY 360 wheels - need ideas and parts suggestions
« Reply #1 on: February 07, 2019, 09:07:02 am »
I've found this Go cart steering column that might be a decent fit, when chopped to length:
https://www.ebay.com/itm/Dazon-150cc-Go-Kart-Steering-Column/132717927418

Price is right as well, at $9, but shipping is Ä55. I'll have a look at something similar in Europe.

Still not sure how to mount the encoder though..

Mike A

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Re: DIY 360 wheels - need ideas and parts suggestions
« Reply #2 on: February 07, 2019, 09:10:27 am »
Nifty project. I though about doing this awhile back. I would like to help out, but I am knee deep in work for other people right now.

fgh

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Re: DIY 360 wheels - need ideas and parts suggestions
« Reply #3 on: February 07, 2019, 09:46:18 am »
Thanks Mike. Good luck with your projects! I've got too many as well..

I just realised the flat part of the encoder can simply be used with a set screw, and then the centering would take care of itself as long as I use the correct dimensions.
So, I'm looking for a hollow steering rod whose inner diameter matches the outer diameter of the encoder...

These encoders are suitable for the job, right? No need to use a hall effect sensor with gears or anything else?

I also found out go cart steering hubs/bosses could work... (see image attachment)
« Last Edit: February 07, 2019, 03:29:43 pm by fgh »

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Re: DIY 360 wheels - need ideas and parts suggestions
« Reply #4 on: February 07, 2019, 10:52:25 am »
Still not sure how to mount the encoder though.
If you have access to a 3d printer, there is this mount on Thingiverse or I can modify/customize either that encoder mount or the one below in OpenSCAD for you.

Code: [Select]
// Rotary Encoder - Mount

// This mount is for rotary encoders like the ones at [url]https://www.amazon.com/Signswise-Incremental-Encoder-Dc5-24v-Voltage/dp/B00UTIFCVA/[/url]

// StefanBurger wrote an excelent Arduino sketch/firmware that converts the quadrature waveforms output by the rotary encoder into mouse movements.  The firmware is at the Thingiverse link in this thread along with the details on how to wire the Arduino.  http://forum.arcadecontrols.com/index.php/topic,152868.0.html

/////////////////////////////
//      Define variables
/////////////////////////////

BodyDiameter = 39;          // Default = 39
HubDiameter = 21;           // Default = 21
ScrewHoleDiameter = 3.45;   // Default = 3.45
ScrewHoleRadius = 15;       // Usually 14 or 15 mm from the center of the shaft to the center of the screw holes
ScrewHoleAngleOffset = 0;   // Rotates the screw hole positions for better wire management
ScrewHoleDistance = 76; // Center-to-center distance between the slide guide screw holes

// Slide guide holes
SlideScrewHoleDiameter = 7; // Default = 7
PEXDiameter = 10;           // Default = 10

// The diameter values may need to be *very slightly* larger to account for the 180-sided polygon used to render circles -- see "undersized holes" at [url]https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/OpenSCAD_User_Manual/Primitive_Solids#cylinder[/url]
$fn=180; // Number of fragments (polygon sides) used to render a circle

/////////////////////////////
//      Make the part
/////////////////////////////

// Face plate
difference (){
    // Face plate shape = cylinder + cube
    hull() {
        // Cylinder
        translate ([0, 0, 2])
        cylinder (4, d = BodyDiameter+6, center=true);
        // Cube
        translate ([0, -22, 2])
        cube ([BodyDiameter+6, 2, 4], center=true);
    }
    // Remove center hole for hub
    translate([0, 0, 2])
    cylinder(7, d = HubDiameter, center=true);
    // Remove screw hole 1
    translate ([0, 0, 2])
    rotate ([0, 0, ScrewHoleAngleOffset])
    translate ([0, ScrewHoleRadius, 0])
    cylinder(7, d=ScrewHoleDiameter, center=true);
    // Remove screw hole 2
    translate ([0, 0, 2])
    rotate ([0, 0, ScrewHoleAngleOffset+120])
    translate ([0, ScrewHoleRadius, 0])
    cylinder(7, d=ScrewHoleDiameter, center=true);
    // Remove screw hole 3
    translate ([0, 0, 2])
    rotate ([0, 0, ScrewHoleAngleOffset+240])
    translate ([0, ScrewHoleRadius, 0])
    cylinder(7, d=ScrewHoleDiameter, center=true);
}
//

// Support block
difference (){
    // Make support block
    translate ([0, -17, 12])
    cube ([BodyDiameter+6, 12, 16], center=true);
    // Make cutout for rotary encoder body
    translate([0, 0, 14])
    cylinder(24, d = BodyDiameter, center=true);
}
//

// Base
difference (){
    hull() {
        // Cylinder 1
        rotate ([90, 0, 0])
        translate ([-ScrewHoleDistance/2, 10, 21])
        cylinder (4, d = 20, center=true);
        // Cylinder 2
        rotate ([90, 0, 0])
        translate ([ScrewHoleDistance/2, 10, 21])
        cylinder (4, d = 20, center=true);
    }
    // PEX hole 1
    rotate ([90, 0, 0])
    translate([-ScrewHoleDistance/2, 10, 21])
    cylinder(8, d = PEXDiameter, center=true);
    // PEX hole 2
    rotate ([90, 0, 0])
    translate([ScrewHoleDistance/2, 10, 21])
    cylinder(8, d = PEXDiameter, center=true);
    // Make cutout for rotary encoder body
    translate([0, 0, 14])
    cylinder(24, d = BodyDiameter, center=true);
}
//

// Slide guide 1
difference (){
    // Cylinder 1
    rotate ([90, 0, 0])
    translate ([-ScrewHoleDistance/2, 10, 11])
    cylinder (16, d = 20, center=true);
    // Screw hole 1
    rotate ([90, 0, 0])
    translate([-ScrewHoleDistance/2, 10, 11])
    cylinder(20, d = SlideScrewHoleDiameter, center=true);
    // PEX hole 1
    rotate ([90, 0, 0])
    translate([-ScrewHoleDistance/2, 10, 15])
    cylinder(10, d = PEXDiameter, center=true);
}
//

// Slide guide 2
difference (){
    // Cylinder 2
    rotate ([90, 0, 0])
    translate ([ScrewHoleDistance/2, 10, 11])
    cylinder (16, d = 20, center=true);
    // Screw hole 2
    rotate ([90, 0, 0])
    translate([ScrewHoleDistance/2, 10, 11])
    cylinder(20, d = SlideScrewHoleDiameter, center=true);
    // PEX hole 2
    rotate ([90, 0, 0])
    translate([ScrewHoleDistance/2, 10, 15])
    cylinder(10, d = PEXDiameter, center=true);
}
//

Maybe use some 2020 (or similar) aluminum extrusion rails/brackets/T-slot nuts for the frame.

These encoders are suitable for the job, right?
Yes.  They should work with any optical (mouse) encoder like the OptiPAC or an Arduino using StefanBurger's firmware located at the Thingiverse link in this thread along with the details on how to wire the Arduino.


Scott
« Last Edit: February 07, 2019, 11:01:18 am by PL1 »

Howard_Casto

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Re: DIY 360 wheels - need ideas and parts suggestions
« Reply #5 on: February 07, 2019, 01:17:07 pm »
A 360 degree wheel is just a wheel on a heavy duty spinner.  I built a removable one with about $20 in parts from tractor supply.  Get yourself two axel bearings an a shaft and you are halfway there already.  After that it's just mounting the parts and attaching the encoder wheel to the shaft. 

fgh

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Re: DIY 360 wheels - need ideas and parts suggestions
« Reply #6 on: February 08, 2019, 05:05:17 pm »
Thanks guys!

PL1: That 3D model looks like it will do the trick!
Iíll measure the encoder when it arrives.
The arduino option is great! Just ordered three nanos for another project, Iíll get a few more then :)

Howard: I knew Iíd need a shaft and bearings, itís the second half Iím less certain about.


Anyone: I might just use a 12MM bolt as shaft.
Iíll figure out the wheel end and the bearings.
Then i only need to figure out a good way to couple the encoder with the shaft..
The shaft (bolt) has threads. I found some Ďreduction nipplesí, if I can find the right size I might be onto something :)

« Last Edit: February 08, 2019, 05:06:58 pm by fgh »

PL1

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Re: DIY 360 wheels - need ideas and parts suggestions
« Reply #7 on: February 08, 2019, 11:00:45 pm »
I might just use a 12MM bolt as shaft.
Iíll figure out the wheel end and the bearings.
Then i only need to figure out a good way to couple the encoder with the shaft..
The shaft (bolt) has threads. I found some Ďreduction nipplesí, if I can find the right size I might be onto something :)
The threads mght be more trouble than they are worth -- might be easier to cut off the threaded part.   :dunno

There are shaft couplers that change from one size to another like this 6mm to 12mm version.

 

You may want to consider using pillow bearings.  Some have the bearing mounted in a self-aligning ball pivot.

 

If the bolt isn't within tight enough tolerances to fit in the pillow bearings, there are a number of 8 - 12mm linear motion shafts commonly used in 3d printers/CNC machines/robotics that would work well for your project.



There are also flange shaft couplers that might be useful.




Scott
« Last Edit: February 09, 2019, 02:14:05 am by PL1 »

baritonomarchetto

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Re: DIY 360 wheels - need ideas and parts suggestions
« Reply #8 on: February 09, 2019, 01:25:46 am »
Arduino nano is not the right choice (at least if you don't want to mess with serial communication/autoit or firmwre flashing). An arduino based on 32u4 microprocessor will work (leonardo, pro micro, etc) or a DUE

fgh

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Re: DIY 360 wheels - need ideas and parts suggestions
« Reply #9 on: February 09, 2019, 06:16:39 pm »
Appreciate the support, guys! :)

I tossed the 12mm bolt idea when I came across a wheel thatís available locally for peanuts, so Iíll try that type first. (Itís plastic though)
Iíve ordered encoders, 6-12 mm shaft couplers (Thanks PL1!), Arduino Pro Micros (Thanks Bariton!), flange bearings, and Iíll buy a 12mm steel shaft and cut to length soon.

The new wheel takes a 23mm shaft though, so I need to reduce that to 12mm. I found 12,5 to 22,23mm rubber bushings, perhaps theyíll do the job. I suppose Iíll drill a hole and put a screw through both shafts.

I could use such a flange shaft coupler as well - behind some wood to protect the shaft from being pulled out.

Most of the items have been ordered from china so this will be on hold for a good while :)

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Re: DIY 360 wheels - need ideas and parts suggestions
« Reply #10 on: February 10, 2019, 03:18:11 am »
The new wheel takes a 23mm shaft though, so I need to reduce that to 12mm. I found 12,5 to 22,23mm rubber bushings, perhaps theyíll do the job. I suppose Iíll drill a hole and put a screw through both shafts.
If the rubber bushings don't work, LMK if you want a 3d printable bushing model in OpenSCAD with easily adjustable variables for a perfect fit.   ;D

+1 on drilling all the way through both shafts.

Bonus points if you tap the metal center shaft so you can tighten two screws (one from each side) in the metal threads.
- There's less strain on the plastic if it isn't threaded to retain a screw.


Scott

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Re: DIY 360 wheels - need ideas and parts suggestions
« Reply #11 on: February 13, 2019, 04:04:20 pm »
I found some 12-22mm steel spacers, they might be just perfect.
Ordered some 15cm steel rods as well, so just the encoder mount left.
I might have a go at making my own mount, now that the centering will be properly taken care of by the 6-12mm shaft coupler.

PL1: Thanks. I don't think I'll get any bonus points then :)  (I was just planning a long 5mm screw with a lock nut at the end)

Edit:  The shaft will be a bit longer than the drawing by the way..
« Last Edit: February 13, 2019, 04:23:08 pm by fgh »

fgh

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Re: DIY 360 wheels - need ideas and parts suggestions
« Reply #12 on: February 25, 2019, 03:49:21 am »
Parts are starting to show up from China already :)

Edit: Spacers and encoders arrived as well, so I have no excuse not to start building the frame now :)
« Last Edit: February 26, 2019, 03:55:57 am by fgh »

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Re: DIY 360 wheels - need ideas and parts suggestions
« Reply #13 on: February 27, 2019, 12:31:44 am »
Looking good!

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Re: DIY 360 wheels - need ideas and parts suggestions
« Reply #14 on: February 27, 2019, 08:21:41 pm »
How is that encoder working for you?  I use a regular old chopper wheel and optic sensor for mine but it's fidgety when it comes to keeping everything aligned... might be worth it for me to switch over to what you are using. 

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Re: DIY 360 wheels - need ideas and parts suggestions
« Reply #15 on: February 27, 2019, 09:39:30 pm »
How is that encoder working for you?  I use a regular old chopper wheel and optic sensor for mine but it's fidgety when it comes to keeping everything aligned... might be worth it for me to switch over to what you are using.
This type of encoder works great.   ;D

It should be a worthwhile upgrade to your setup.

LMK if you'd like a customized, 3d printed mounting bracket.   :cheers:


Scott

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Re: DIY 360 wheels - need ideas and parts suggestions
« Reply #16 on: February 28, 2019, 05:37:48 am »
I didn't receive the arduinos yet, and although I have an ultimarc ultimate IO, I haven't testet the encoders yet.
Someome has printed the encoder mounts for me, I'm picking them up on saturday.
Will be away for work for a while now..